From Rumi to Iqbal: Comparative Insights into Sufi Thought and Its Reception in Pakistani and Turkish Cultures


  • Gulnara Hassanova Research Associate at the Young Women for Change in Caucasus (YWCC), Baku
  • Aziza Mehmandarova Research Associate at the Young Women for Change in Caucasus (YWCC), Baku
  • Dr. Samina Noor Senior Vice-President at the Young Women for Change in Caucasus (YWCC), Baku and Visiting Lecturer at the Islamia University of Bahawalpur


Sufi Thoughts, Comparative Analysis, Rumi, Iqbal, Pakistani Culture, Turkish Culture


While analyzing diverse Sufi works, this study offers a comprehensive exploration of the multilayered influence of Sufi thought as embodied in the poetry of Jalaluddin Rumi and Allama Muhammad Iqbal within the cultural landscapes of Pakistan and Turkey. This research endeavors to unravel the enduring significance of Sufi ideals and philosophical underpinnings as manifested in the literary works of these two eminent poets, tracing their reception and interpretation in the respective societies. Key questions guiding this comparative study include examining the similarities and differences in the thematic motifs, theological perspectives and socio-cultural impacts of Rumi and Iqbal’s poetry on Pakistani and Turkish communities. Employing a qualitative research approach, this study incorporates textual analysis, literary criticism and socio-historical contextualization to elucidate the intricate nuances of Sufi thought and its resonance across geographical and temporal boundaries. Through this investigation, this study aims to offer fresh insights into the transformative power of Sufi poetry in shaping spiritual, intellectual and social discourse, enhancing curiosity about the dynamic interplay between literary expression and cultural reception within diverse cultural milieus.


Ahmad, S. (2010). Iqbal: Poet-Philosopher of Pakistan. Iqbal Academy Pakistan.

Ahmed, S. (2015). The Philosophy of Allama Muhammad Iqbal: A Critical Study. Oxford University Press.

Ali Khan, N. F. (2000). Devotional Qawwali. Oriental Star Agencies.

Asim, Muhammad. (2024) Intellectual Space of Pakistani Sufi Scholars in Turkish Culture: A Case Study of Turkey and Azerbaijan. Islamabad. Pak-Iran Intellectuals Forum.

Chughtai, A. R. (2008). Abdur Rahman Chughtai: A Retrospective. National Art Gallery.

Emre, Y. (2015). The Essential Yunus Emre. HarperOne.

Ernst, C. (2016). The Cambridge Companion to Sufism. Cambridge University Press.

Farid, B. (2010). The Spiritual Wisdom of Baba Farid. Fons Vitae.

Gan Bakhsh, D. (2003). Kashf al-Mahjub: The Oldest Persian Treatise on Sufism. Cosimo Classics.

Iqbal, M. (2012). The Secrets of the Self (Asrar-e-Khudi). Iqbal Academy Pakistan.

Kugle, S. (2004). Sufis and Saints’ Bodies: Mysticism, Corporeality and Sacred Power in Islam. University of North Carolina Press.

Malik, I. (2017). Revisiting Iqbal: Perspectives on the Poet-Philosopher. Oxford University Press.

Mevlevi Order. (2010). The Mevlevi Order: Whirling Dervishes. Retrieved from

Nasr, S. H. (2007). The Garden of Truth: The Vision and Promise of Sufism, Islam’s Mystical Tradition. HarperOne.

Parveen, A. (2005). Abida Parveen: The Mystic Musician of Pakistan. Oxford University Press.

Qadri, S. A. (2008). Iqbal: His Poetry and Philosophy. International Islamic University Islamabad.

Rumi, J. (2014). The Masnavi: Book One. Oxford University Press.

Sadequain. (1995). Sadequain: The Holy Sinner. Sadequain Foundation.

Schimmel, A. (1978). Mystical Dimensions of Islam. University of North Carolina Press.

Turkish Art. (2008). The Art of Turkey: A Visual Journey. Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism.

Yavuz, H. (2012). Islamic Political Identity in Turkey. Oxford University Press.

Zaheer, Dr. Muhammad Akram & Asim, Muhammad. (2024) Pak-Turk Religious Commonalities: Impacts on Sufi Circles. Islamabad. Pak-Iran Intellectuals Forum.




How to Cite

Gulnara Hassanova, Aziza Mehmandarova, & Dr. Samina Noor. (2024). From Rumi to Iqbal: Comparative Insights into Sufi Thought and Its Reception in Pakistani and Turkish Cultures. Insights of Mystical, Spiritual and Theological Studies, 3(2), 23–31. Retrieved from