Between Past and Present: Contrasting the Theological Views of and Contemporary Zoroastrians in Sistan-o-Baluchistan


  • Alif Awwal Research Scholar at Al-Mustafa International University, Qom (Iran)
  • Dr. Syed Raheem Abbas Shah Assistant Professor, Dpeartment of Political Science at the Government Graduate College Bhakkar, and former Research Fellow at Al-Mustafa International University, Qom (Iran)


Sistan-o-Baluchistan, Modernity, Religious Practices, Cultrual Heritage, Ancient Persian Urbanization, Zoroastrianism


This study offers a comprehensive exploration of the evolution of Zoroastrian theology in the region, examining the contrast between ancient beliefs and contemporary interpretations. The significance of this study lies in its contribution to understanding how Zoroastrianism has adapted and transformed over time in response to historical, cultural and social changes. Key research questions include: What are the core theological beliefs of ancient Zoroastrianism in Sistan-o-Baluchistan and how do they differ from modern interpretations? How have external influences and internal developments shaped the evolution of Zoroastrian theology in the region? Previous works by scholars such as Rahimkhani (2010) provide valuable insights into the historical context of Zoroastrianism in Sistan-o-Baluchistan, laying the foundation for this comparative analysis. Methodologically, this study employs a combination of textual analysis, historical research and interviews with contemporary Zoroastrian scholars and practitioners to explain the theological shifts and continuity over time. By contrasting ancient and contemporary perspectives, this research aims to provoke further inquiry into the dynamic nature of Zoroastrian theology and its relevance in the modern world, promoting a deeper understanding of the rich heritage of Zoroastrianism in Sistan-o-Baluchistan.


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How to Cite

Alif Awwal, & Dr. Syed Raheem Abbas Shah. (2024). Between Past and Present: Contrasting the Theological Views of and Contemporary Zoroastrians in Sistan-o-Baluchistan. Insights of Mystical, Spiritual and Theological Studies, 3(2), 1–9. Retrieved from